Purpose of Review—There are a limited number of studies investigating the association between the microbiome and HIV. Although the majority of these published investigations have focused on the role of the bacterial community (bacteriome) in this setting, a handful of studies have also characterized the role of the mycobiome in HIV-infected individuals. This review will summarize the most recent reports pertaining to the role of the fungal community in HIV.

Recent findings—Differences in the composition of the oral and respiratory mycobiome in HIV-infected individuals compared to uninfected individuals have been reported.

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Summary—Our review shows that studies investigating the role of the mycobiome in the setting of HIV are severely lacking. With recent advances in our understanding of the composition of the human microbiome, investigations into the role of the bacteria and fungus comprising the overall microbiota and how the two interact to influence each other and the host is crucial.

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